There are backups of the Superblock located on several positions and we can restore them with a simple command in a Linux server
By default in Linux, the file system creates the backup of super block in the following locations:
193, 3276, 9804, 16840, 22976 and 29912.
Note: 193 is only on older systems in many cases. 3276 is the most current position for the first backup
When you get this "damaged superblock or bad superblock error" and if you get a root-prompt in a recovery console, then issue the following command:
# e2fsck -b 3276 /dev/sda5
Now the System will check the filesystem with the information stored in that backup superblock and if the check was successful it will restore the backup to position 0.
If this is not successful, then try using the other copy of Superblock backup (Refer the backup location of superblock above)